In the case of tropical fruits, especially sensitive to cold, they will suffer injuries such as blackening and changes in flavor, if they are subjected to temperatures between 5ºC and 14ºC for a certain period of time. Let’s find out why cold storage plants are needed in India?
The temperature control will be carried out with a field of damped thermal probes that give a deviation from the interior conditions, in addition to, in some cases, a control probe in the product, so that its interior evolution can be compared over time.
Why cold storage plants are needed in India?
India wastes tons of food every year and delivery which can be avoided with the help of cold storage infrastructure.
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Relative humidity in fruit refrigeration:
Along with temperature, humidity is another very important factor, since during ripening the fruits perspire and lose water naturally. So that, in order to avoid water loss or dehydration and the acceleration of fruit senescence (fruits and vegetables, as a result of dehydration, wrinkle and wither while losing weight and vitamins).
The cold storages in which they are stored must have high relative humidity, being adequate between 85 and 95%, generally 90%, for fruits and over 95% for vegetables, although the appropriate relative humidity for each product will depend on its surface/volume ratio. This value must be adequately controlled since an excess of humidity could cause the appearance and growth of molds.
The relative humidity is managed by control systems of the refrigerant conditions in question (Refrigerant CO2, ammonia, and glycol) inside the evaporator and/or humidification of the premises with steam or water spray.
Ventilation and industrial atmosphere in its conservation:
The atmosphere must be controlled with proper ventilation, to prevent the fruit’s own respiration from creating an atmosphere with an oxygen level below 2%. If this happens, the fruits that need oxygen to change color for ripening will remain green and fermentation processes will begin, leading to fruit loss.
Therefore, cold storage must control the correct proportions of oxygen/CO2, and these will depend on the specific product in question. Changes in the ratio of these gases will generally be offset by nitrogen, which has no effect.
At the same time, the ethylene naturally released by the fruit as a result of their ripening will have to be controlled, eliminating it with adequate ventilation.
Consumption of fruits and vegetables in India:
The Annual Report on the Food Industry 2019-2020 indicates that the food and beverage industry is the leading manufacturing branch of the industrial sector and accounts for 22.8% of the total industrial sector, representing 2.6% of the GDP of India. 4.8% of the companies are for the preparation and preservation of fruit and vegetables. These move a turnover of 10,382 million, 8.2% of the total for the food industry.
In reference to the consumption of fruits and vegetables, the latest Food report 2020 indicates that the consumption of fresh fruits has increased by 10% and the consumption of fresh vegetables by 12.5% compared to 2019. Processed fruits and vegetables, their consumption in 2020 has also increased by 13.4%.
The WHO recommends following the Mediterranean diet and eating about 400 g of vegetables and fruits daily since numerous scientific studies certify that insufficient consumption is a factor that influences the appearance of diseases.
The antioxidants that these foods contain, especially polyphenols, play an important role in health by counteracting the effects of free radicals. However, given its perishable nature, 85% of the food that is discarded in homes and thrown away is vegetables, fruits, and bread.
If we take these data into account, it seems that there is a certain growing trend in consumption, which affects both the industry itself and the general health level of the Spanish population.
In this way, the high demands of the refrigeration facilities for fruit and vegetables are controlled by managing several simultaneous variables, which are generally summarized as the existence of low temperatures in the cold storages, high relative humidity, and ventilation that guarantees a correct oxygen ratio. And CO2, all without forgetting that there must be a total adaptation to specific needs, given that each fruit and vegetable has its own characteristics and optimal storage conditions.
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